Current Status and Trends of Dental Glass-ceramics

Reference Presenter Authors
11-015 Maziar Montazerian Montazerian, M.(Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar)); Villas Boas, M.(Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar)); Eilaghi, M.(Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar)); Sampaio, A.(Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar)); Zanotto, E.D.(Federal University of Sao Carlos (UFSCar)); Remarkable research projects have been conducted lately, and others are currently underway to develop improved or new dental materials with enhanced properties, or materials that can be processed using modern technologies, such as CAD/CAM and 3D printing. These materials are moving towards all-ceramic restorations. Herein we demonstrate that glass-ceramics (GCs) are highly attractive due to their flexible processing and outstanding combination of properties, such as esthetics, translucency, low thermal conductivity, high strength, good chemical durability, biocompatibility, wear resistance, and hardness similar to that of natural teeth. In this talk, we describe the main commercial (dental) glass-ceramics and emphasize that R&D in this area is still indispensable to improve their mechanical properties and esthetics. The traditional strategy - twofold nucleation and crystallization of glasses - demands further attention to gain control over the precipitation of variety of crystals with different morphologies and properties. The crystal phase distribution can, in principle, modify and improve the fracture strength, fracture toughness, esthetics, machinability and thermal expansion of glass-ceramics. We describe some crystals that are responsible for different toughening mechanisms, such as transformation toughening, bridging, micro-cracking, and pulling out. These mechanisms are stimulated by controlled crystallization of crystals having a variety of morphologies and the related GC microstructures. Finally, we will present our research lines for the development of new dental glass-ceramics with improved properties. These activities include extensive research protocols for the development of lithium meta/disilicate glass-ceramics and investigating their mechanical properties.
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