|12-039||Clive Randall||Randall, C.(Penn State University);||
Cold sintering is the ability to densify ceramics and ceramic composites through the use of a transient liquid phase at intermediate temperatures and pressures. Since the early reports of the ability to synthesize many materials with this process, we have gained new insights into the mechanisms that underpin or limit the densification process. In this presentation, we will review both our own work, as well as the work of others that is emerging over the last two to three years. We will critically review areas of agreement, as well as many of the unknowns and challenges that still need to be resolved.We will also highlight a number of the application areas that seem most appropriate for cold sintering. In particular, we have been developing methods to redesign grain boundaries in ceramics with secondary phases. These include thin polymer interfaces, as well as nanomaterials, such as 2-D materials, that could all be included to create new microstructures and very unusual composite properties. We will highlight characteristics ranging from electrochemistry, dielectric and semiconducting properties, mechanical properties, and thermal properties. The ability to make composites with high volume fractions of ceramic, but also nanometer scale polymer and 2-D materials in grain boundaries, is a unique advantage of cold sintering.